Line Follower Robot

Line follower robot

To design & test Line Follower Robot and its application.


The line follower is a self operating robot that detects and follows a line that is drawn on the floor.

The path consists of a black line on a white surface (or it may be reverse of that).

A line follower robot is basically a robot designed to follow a line or path already pre-determined by the user. This line or path may be as simple as a physical white line on the floor or as complex path marking schemes e.g. embedded lines, magnetic markers and laser guide markers. In order to detect these specific markers or ‘lines’, various sensing schemes can be employed. These schemes may vary from simple low cost line sensing circuit to expansive vision systems. The choice of these schemes would be dependent upon the sensing accuracy and flexibility required. From the industrial point of view, line following robot has been implemented in semi to fully autonomous plants. In this environment, these robots functions as materials carrier to deliver products from one manufacturing point to another where rail, conveyor and gantry solutions are not possible. Apart from line following capabilities, these robots should also have the capability to navigate junctions and decide on which junction to turn and which junction ignore. To add on to the complexity of the problem, sensor positioning also plays a role in optimizing the robots performance for the tasks mentioned earlier. Line-following robots with pick- and- placement capabilities are commonly used in manufacturing plants. These move on a specified path to pick the components from specified locations and place them on desired locations. Basically, a line-following robot is a self-operating robot that detects and follows a line drawn on the floor. The path to be taken is indicated by a white line on a black surface. The control system used must sense the line and man oeuvre the robot to stay on course while constantly correcting the wrong moves using feedback mechanism, thus forming a simple yet effective close d- loop system.


  • To study the IR Sensor
  • To design the circuit.
  • To study Robotics.
  • To design circuit for Line follower robot.
  • To study motor driver IC.
  • Study of op-amp.

List of Components:

  • DC Motors
  • IR sensor
  • IC 7805
  • LED’s
  • MOTOR driver IC
  • OP-AMP
  • Resistor & Capacitor
  • Connecting Wires
  • PCB
  • Power Supply / Batteries


    Block diagram of Line Follower Robot

    IR Sensor :

    IR reflective sensors have one emitter (IR LED) and one receiver (Photo-
    Transistor or photo diode.
    If we have white surface it reflects the light and it will sensed by the receiver,
    similarly if we have black surface it absorbs the light and receiver can not sense light.

IR Sensor

Power Supply/ Batteries

The project requires a 9 volt DC supply voltage for proper working of motor driver IC and for the Circuit we also required 5 Volt DC for the circuit. That’s why here we used Batteries as a Power supply.


  • Tour guide in museum.
  • This type of robot used in industries and MIDC/Manufacturing companies.
  • It can be used as a servant in 5-star hotels.
  • Guidance system for industrial robot.


The Line Follower Robot is designed and tested successfully.

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